The earth has hitherto witnessed series of atmospheric changes, among which is the ongoing increase in global warming which continuous to wreak havoc among biological beings on the earth.
Phenomena of global warming are generally known to have been facilitated by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane which trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere and accelerate the earth’s temperature level.
The presence of global warming has posed negative effects to the weather and agricultural conditions across the world as drier situations continuous to prevail across Sahel region of Western Africa, Southern Africa, Mediterranean, and parts of Southern Asia.
Consequently, droughts become longer and more intense since1970s particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Weather patterns have become less predictable giving chances to unexpected outbreaks of natural disasters like floods, Hurricanes, desertification around the world.
Also, the accelerating atmospheric warming has caused reparative effects on the surface layer of the ocean; as it expands in volume and thus raising sea level which has complicated life in various parts of the world. Since erosion of cliffs, beaches, and dunes will increase and invade the mouths of rivers resulting to heavy flooding.
On its own account, Youths Against Disaster Initiative (YADI) confirmed that rising in temperature level would cause a great harm to plants which are naturally sources of food to man and animals; as well as increase in tropical diseases like malaria mostly found in the tropics and transmitted by mosquitoes, yellow fever, and encephalitis.
Recently, in a bid to immune Nigerian environment against hazards of global warming in Nigeria, the Director-General of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Alhaji Muhammad Sani-Sidi reacted that responding to the challenges of global warming would require fundamental changes in energy production, transportation, industrial and government policies, and development strategies around the world. This has prompted his sensitization campaign against global warming within and outside the country.
His words: “Forest preservation is an essential tactic to keep carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. It has been reported that trees, especially young and fast-growing ones, soak up a great deal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon atoms in new wood. There is a need to reduce the growing rate of deforestation particularly in the tropics.”
It is undoubtedly that industrial demand for agricultural products, like rubber has resulted to deforestation and soil changes across the globe. Such practice has accelerated the industrial growth, and as well paved ways for intense global warming.
Adequate environmental and wastes management through the adoption of systematic recycling is another tactic to tackle global warming. YADI has observed that recycling reduces pollution, as a product recycled creates less pollution than new one. Recycling can also saves energy by reducing the need to process new material, which usually requires more energy than the recycling process.
NEMA has urged carefulness in part of individuals towards the use of electrical gadgets such as leaving turned on television, computer, and the lights. They are advised to take time away from television and spend more time outdoors; while excessive use of mechanical engines like cares, buses, trucks that generate fume must be reduced.
At industrial level, Carbon dioxide brought to the earth surface through the natural gas drillings around the world must be properly captured, compressed, and injected into an aquifer deep below the seabed from which it cannot escape. In most cases, the process of carbon capture should include transporting the gas in compressed form to suitable locations for underground storage.
There is a need for the review and full implementation of the global Environmental Protection Laws. This will help to promulgate proper environmental use guidelines; and timely sanctions against injudicious use of agro-allied materials by industries. For instance, United States has embarked on serious effort against local and regional air pollution since the declaration of Clean Air Act of 1970, amended in 1977 and 1990. This can also be achieved in Nigeria through sufficient reforms of the Environmental Protection Boards across the country.